Distinction between 'growth‘ and 'development‘; historical genesis and evolution of the concept of development; theories of development and underdevelopment; the political nature of the development process. Role of state, market, culture and civil society in development. Gendered nature of development. Post-independence Indian experience (centralized planning and socialism) of development; selected comparisons with China, East Asia, South Asia, Africa, Latin America. Explaining India‘s slow progress in human and social development, poor record in reduction of poverty and inequality. Impact of globalization, foreign aid and economic reform on India‘s development. Experiments with decentralization and sustainable development.